Lipoproteins Stocks ListRelated Stock Lists: Cardiology Low Density Lipoprotein Biopharmaceutical Cholesterol Gabaa Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators Lipids Medical Specialties Antisense RNA Atherosclerosis Autoimmune Diseases Celiac Disease Chemical Compounds Chemistry Chloroarenes Diabetes Dyslipidemia Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency Familial Chylomicronemia Syndrome Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Hypothyroidism
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose primary purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid. They have a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, with the hydrophilic portions oriented outward toward the surrounding water and lipophilic portions of each molecule oriented inwards toward the lipids molecules within the particles. Apolipoproteins are embedded in the membrane, both stabilising the complex and giving it functional identity determining its fate. Thus the complex serves to emulsify the fats. Many enzymes, transporters, structural proteins, antigens, adhesions, and toxins are lipoproteins. Examples include the plasma lipoprotein particles classified as HDL, LDL, IDL, VLDL and ULDL (a.k.a. chylomicrons) lipoproteins, according to density / size (an inverse relationship), compared with the surrounding plasma water. These complex protein capsules enable fats to be carried in all extracellular water, including the blood stream (an example of emulsification), subgroups of which are primary drivers / modulators of atherosclerosis, the transmembrane proteins of mitochondrion, chloroplast, and bacterial lipoproteins. Proteolipids are a different kind of protein-lipid combination that are insoluble in water. Proteolipids are abundant in brain tissue, and are also present in many other animal and plant tissues.